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مقاله درمورد دانلود allusion، KP، Comparison، refers

David.
2. Like David in loves garden gently sigh There sing the songs that make men long to die.
This KP allusion refers to tenth verse of Saba’Surah (And assurdly We gave David grace from Us, (saying): O ye hills and birds, echo his psalms of praise! And we made the iron supple unto him).
Comparison and comment:
The strategy which has been used by both translators of the text is ‘re-creation, using a fusion of techniques’: creative construction of a passage which hints at the connotations of the allusion or other special effects created by it. In this translation, both translators mostly exercise true semantic and cultural translation for the KP allusion. The translators have shown concerns for the ST. They have not hindered the readability of the text by offering TL version which does not belong to the cultural system of the ST.
Example 12:
حلق داوودی به معنی بر گشای خلق را از لحن خلقت رهنمای(649)
1. Open your melodious throat and sing of spiritual things. By your songs show men the true way.
2. O, sing as David did, and with your song Guide home mans suffering and deluded throng.
The KP allusion refers to the common idea in Islamic culture which is exist is seeing of universe in true harmony creation.
Comparison and comment:
Both translators have utilized two strategies in their translations. These strategies which have preferred are: ‘omission of the allusion’ and use of ‘standard translation’ strategies. Both translators without regarding to connotative or contextual meaning of the allusion translated text literally. In fact, they have not provided the reader with extra-allusive information to compensate for the loss of connotative or contextual meaning. The primary aims of these translators are not to stay close to the experience of ST. They have not shown a concern for the target reader’s comprehension. But, on the whole, translations are literal because they have ignored contextual and pragmatic considerations in ST.

Example 13:
تنگدل زانی که درخون مانده ای درمضیق حبس ذالنون مانده ای(663)
1. You went out contented and returned with a sad heart to a prison as narrow as Jonah’s.
2. Your heart is wrung with grief; you share the goal That Jonah knew, the belly of a whale
The KP allusion refers to falling Jonah in whale’s stomach and he was prisoned.
Comparison and comment:
The first translator using a ‘standard translation’ strategy has translated the KP allusion. He has created a KP allusion in TL in order to express the exact meaning of KP allusion in SL version. In general, he has struggled to convey the semantic and cultural meaning of KP allusion in ST to TL reader. In second translation of KP allusion belonging to ST, the translators have privileged linguistic meaning over semantic meaning in the translation. Through the ‘minimum change’ strategy specific allusion belonging to the source culture is substituted for by allusion belonging to the TL culture.
Example 14:
ای شده سرگشته ماهی نَفَس چند خواهی دید بدخواهی نفس(664)
1. O you who wander here and there like a fish, can you languish in ill will?
2. The Self has swallowed you for its delight; how long will you endure its mindless spite?
As said in previous example the KP allusion refers to falling Jonah in whale’s stomach and he was prisoned.
Comparison and Comment:
  ‘Minimum change’, that is, a literal translation without regard to connotative or contextual meaning there is thus no change that would aim specifically at the transfer of connotations, The translators only have paid attention to the linguistic structure of the KP allusion in TL version. In translations, cultural meaning and semantic meaning without regarding to the role of connotative and contextual meaning has not been transferred to the target reader. The translations are literal translation or word-by-word translation.
Example 15:
بسته مردار دنیا آمدی لاجرم مهجورمعنی آمدی(674)
1. Bear yourself becomingly. You are fastened to the body of this world, and so are far from the other.
2. What are you here? Mere carrion, rotten flesh, Withheld from Truth by this worlds clumsy mesh;
The KP allusion refers to the common idea in Islamic culture that the universe is corpse and their seekers are dogs.
Comparison and comment:
The first translation is an example of successful rendering ‘standard translation’ because the key allusion in the ST is lost because of the translators’ keeping literal to the ST which has proposed an incoherent and meaningless text. By contrast in the above, the function of the KP has been carefully considered and transferred to the TT. They have shown concern for the target reader’s understanding of the text by selecting appropriate KP allusion by ‘minimum change’ strategy in second translation.
Example 16:
هم زدنیا هم زعُقبا درگذر پس کلاه از سر بگیر ودرنگر(675)
1. When you are free of the worlds, present and future, you will rest on the hand of Alexander.
2.   Outsoar both this world and the next, and there, Released from both, take off the hood you wear
The KP allusion refers to the common idea in Islamic culture that emphasize on true judgment.
Comparison and comment:
The strategy which has been utilized by first translator is ‘replace by performed TL item’ strategy that is the allusion to »Alexander«has been reduced to sense by the first translator. The Persian connotations of the KP allusion have been removed and it has been translated according to linguistic meaning in English not to semantic meaning in Persian. In fact, the communication between the translated text and English reader has been lost so that translator has tried to make linguistic meaning of KP allusion. On the other hand, intertextuality which is an aspect of allusion in order to convey semantic or idiomatic meaning of translation has been ignored by first translator.The second translator has utilized ‘minimum change’ strategy, that is a literal translation without regard to connotative or contextual meaning there is thus no change that would aim specifically at the transfer of connotations. In two translations the culture specifity of KP allusion has been neglected by both translators by substituting the original KP allusion by a more generalized KP in the TL trough the used strategy.
Example 17:
آنکه بسم اله درمنقار یافت دورنَبوَد گربسی اسراریافت(693)
1. when one carries on his beak, as I do, the name of God, Bismillah, it follows that one must have knowledge of many hidden things.
2. In proof of which behold the holy sign Bismillah etched forever on my beak.
The KP allusion refers to thirtieth verse of Al- Naml Surah: (Lo! It is from Solomon, and lo! It is: In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful ;).
Comparison and comment:
The strategies which have been applied in two translations are different. First translator utilized ‘minimum change’, a literal translation without regarding to connotative or contextual meaning and second one has used ‘standard translation strategy’. The translator has substituted a KP allusion through the strategy by expanding the linguistic meaning of the text. On the other hand, he has selected an equivalent for the KP which can be recognized as a belonging to the TT.

Example 18:
من چو غایب گشتم از وی یک زمان کرد هر سویی طلبکاری دوان(700)
1. yet when I was away from him for a day he sent his messenger everywhere,
2. But when I left him once alone he sought With anxious vigilance for my return
This KP allusion refers to twenty seventh verse of Ta-Ha Surah: (And loose a knot from my tongue,).
Comparison and comment:
‘Minimum change’, that is, a literal translation without regard to connotative or contextual meaning. It attempts to follow the form of the Persian language and changes the order in to English language.
Example 19:
هر که مذکورخدای آمد به خیر کِی رسد درگَردِ سیرش هیچ طیر(703)
1. The bird who is sought after by prophet Solomon, merits a crown for his head.
2. Whatever secrets he divined I knew;
This KP allusion refers to twentieth verse of Al- Naml Surah: (And the sough among the birds and said: How is it that I see not the hoopoe, or is he among the absent?)
Comparison and comment:
First translator has utilized ‘standard translation strategy’ in the first translation of the KP allusion. By using this strategy which, the translator has tried to make intertextual relationship between the translated text. Second translator has utilized ‘minimum change strategy’ in the translation of the KP allusion. This translation is literal translation because it can conclude that literal translation of allusion may be difficult to understand. Literal translation often omits the connotative and contextual meaning of the allusion.

Example 20:
صد هزاران پرده دارد بیشتر هم زنور و هم زظلمت پیش در(716)
1. Before him hang a hundred thousand veils of light and darkness,
2. A hundred thousand veils of dark and light
  Withdraw His presence from our mortal sight.
The KP allusion refers to the common Islamic verse which believed God has seventy thousand certain of Light and Darkness.
Comparison and comment:
Both translators have utilized ‘standard translation strategy’ in translation of the KP allusion. They have created a KP allusion in TL in order to express the exact meaning of KP allusion in SL version. However, they have struggled to convey the semantic, figurative and cultural meaning of KP allusion in ST to TL reader.
Example 21:
ابتدای کار سیمرغ ای عجب جلوه گر بگذشت بر چین نیمشب(737)
1. ‘An astonishing thing! The first manifestation of the Simurgh took place in China in the middle of the night.
2. It was in China, late one moonless night; The Simorgh first appeared to mortal sight
The KP allusion refers to the verse which God create the all universe in Darkness.
Comparison and comment:
For translation of the KP allusion translators have applied ‘standard translation strategy’ which is belong to ST, the translators have privileged linguistic meaning over semantic meaning in the translation. Through the strategy specific allusion belonging to the source culture is substituted for by allusion belonging to the TL culture.
Example 22:
آن پراکنون درنگارستان چین است اطلبوالعلم ولوبالصین ازینست (740)
1. This feather is still in the picture-gallery of that country; hence the saying, “Seeking knowledge, even in China!
2. (In China still this feather is on view, Whence comes the saying you have heard, no doubt,
  Seek knowledge, unto China seek it out.)
This allusion refers to the couplet of Hafez: the China face has beloved to your beauty and the Story has reminded everywhere.
Comparison and comment:
The translators of the KP allusion have used ‘standard translation strategy’ in the translation of the KP allusion. They have created a KP allusion in TL in order to express the exact meaning of KP allusion in SL version. In general, they have tried to convey the semantic and cultural meaning of KP allusion in ST to TL readers.

Example 23:
در سرم ازعشق گل سودابس است زانکه مطلوبم گل رعنا بس است(766)
1. but only of the Rose and the coral of her petals.
2. Her worship is sufficient life for me; The quest for her is my reality
The KP allusion refers to the couplet of Saeb Tabrizi: In this world the universe ruse as red Rose, and it gives me from cup of heart’s blood.

Comparison and comment:
The translator has utilized the ‘simulated familiarity or internal marking strategy’ in his translation this strategy is the addition of intra-allusive allusion features (marked wording or syntax) that depart from the style of

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