the original meter into the TL. And because each language has its own specific stressing and pronunciation system, this method will result in the inappropriate translation in terms of meaning and structure.
4. Verse-to-prose translation has also some weaknesses. The outstanding weakness is the loss of the beauty of the original poem.
5. Rhymed translation emphasizes the transferring of rhyme of the original poem into the translation in TL. The result will be appropriate physically but tend to be the semantically inappropriate.
6. Free verse translation with this method the translator may be able to get the accurate equivalents in the TL with a sound literary value of the result. On the other hand, the rhyme and meter tend to be ignored. So, physically the result is different from the original, but semantically it seems the same
7. Interpretation. A version of poem in the TL will semantically be exactly the same with the original, but physically totally different. Further, an imitation is exactly a different poem but the title, topic, and starting point are the same with the original poem (p. 81).
In the field of translation studies, Poetry translation has been regarded as one of the most controversial issues. Therefore, there are some considerations problems in translating poetry. Hariyanto (2002, p. 5) maintained that a poem is typically rich with aesthetic and expressive values, and the translator might face linguistic, literary, aesthetic and socio-cultural problems some of which are as follows:
2.8.4. Linguistic Problems
Collocations as well as obscured (non-standard) syntactical structure are two major linguistic problems a translator may face during translating a poem (Maazallahi, p. 12).
2.8.5. Literary or Aesthetic Problems
The word order, sound and cognitive sense are means through which the aesthetic value or poetic truth of a poem is manifested (Maazallahi, P. 12). Furthermore, Hariyanto (2002, P. 6) declares that these aesthetic values have no independent meaning, but are correlative with the various types of meaning in the text. Hence, if the translator destroys the word choice, order and sound effects, he distorts the beauty of the original poem. Therefore, the problem lies in how to retain the aesthetic values in the target text.
2.8.6. Poetic Structure
By poetic structure, Hariyanto (2002, P. 6) means the plan of poems as a whole as well as the shape and balance of the individual sentences and lines, along with metaphorical expressions including any constructions evoking visual, auditory, gustatory images and lastly sound effects.
2.8.7. Socio-cultural Problems
Words and expressions containing culturally-bound words are introduced as socio-cultural problems of poetry translation by Hariyanto (2002, p. 7) who maintains that such problems exist in phrases, clauses or sentences including word(s) related to four major cultural categories of ideas, behavior, product and ecology.
In fact, translating poetry has long been a gist of many disputes over the translation issue. If we fail to translate poetry properly, it means that we lack the ability to transfer a bulk of emotions, feeling aesthetic and moral values, etc. In other words, we lack the ability the process from choice of text to be translated to the very final choices of translation strategies of action (Toury, 2000, p. 198).
In the previous chapter, the history, types, scope and forms of intertextuality introduced. And also function, forms and different types of allusion such as PN and KP were discussed separately. Finally, the strategies and translatability of poetry text were identified. Therefore, by analysis of the collected data in chapter four, these strategies for translating KPs allusion in Mantiq ut-Tair will more be discussed.
One of the persistent problems in translation studies for many translators, researchers and specialists is to figure out how to find a one to one equivalent for the existing KP allusion of the original text in the TL, and which strategy can make it possible for translators to convey the intertextual allusive items from ST to the TL.
Generally speaking, the Persian literature is a language which involves many figures of speech. That specially is the concern of the translation researchers to make appropriate and substituting intertextual allusive items in the TL to convey deep emotions, internally hidden feelings and atmosphere of the ST to the reader of TL to make aware his/ her sense due to make simply communicate with and enjoy.
Translators also should be able to perceive the deep structure meaning of the intertextual allusive items and privilege them over surface or linguistic meaning of the KP allusion that lies in discourse and contextual meaning of the text. Therefore, the translator has to research to find out an applied type of strategy to appropriately transfer the paralinguistic meaning of the sour SL KP allusion to the TT. In doing so, s/he struggles to transfer the whole idea of the source text to the target reader. The most important issue that makes translator obligate while doing translation is rendering intended meanings of KP allusion in translation.
Nowadays, translation studies is a more descriptive approach than a prescriptive one. Therefore, knowing various strategies applied by different translators in transferring the true concept of KPs of the original text to the TL is the main focus of the present study. Therefore, the present chapter intends to describe materials and the procedure undertaken to accomplish this study.
In order to find the appropriate answers for the research questions of the present study, KP allusion that is one of the most important issues in accomplishing the task of translating of the poetry text has been considered. To do this, the following materials in a precise manner were investigated. Two English translations of Mantiq ut- Tair which the first one was translated by Nott’s (1954), and the second one was translated by Darbandi and Davis (1984) were descriptively investigated.
3.2.1. Mantiq ut-Tair
Some of the KPs allusions Attar has used such as phrases or short sentences of the name of prophets, birds, objects, and flies can be regarded as potentially transcultural. These KP allusions refer to customs, religious and history of nations which have got appropriate meanings in the context of Islamic culture.
Attar’s great philosophical religious poem, Mantiqu’t-Tayr (1177) was composed probably in the second half of the twelfth century. It is a literary book of poems in Persian by
Farid ud-Din Attar. It consists of 4500 lines. The poem narrates a journey by a group of thirty birds, led by a hoopoe as an allegory of a Sufi sheikh or master leading his pupils to enlightenment. Besides’ being one of the most beautiful examples of Persian poetry, this book relies on a clever, word play between the words Simorgh “a mysterious bird in Iranian mythology” which is a symbol, often found in Sufi literature, and similar to the phoenix bird and “si morgh” meaning “thirty birds” in Persian. It is the best-known work of Farid ud-Din Attar, a Persian poet who was born at some time during the twelfth century in Neishapour in north-east Iran. Hence Kor’anic imagery and the hadith material that offers students of Sufism an invaluable, albeit unpoetic, resource for the literary expression of Islamic mystical concepts are used in it. This book contains many anecdotes about Sufis who suffered for their beliefs; and if Attar was attacked for his writings, the experience surely cannot have been a surprise to him (Kadkani, 1383, P. 66).
3.2.2. Nott’s (1954) Translation
Mantiq ut-Tair (1954) translatio
n by Nott is an incomplete prose version. Nott’s tone, perhaps because he was translating from an intervening language, is consistently reverent, and this makes the poem seem much less lively than in fact it is. Nott consulted a Persian text through a Sufi friend. He has also retained the flavor, the spirit, and the teaching of Attar’s poem. The present rendering is the fullest version that has appeared in English and may interest a wider public.
3.2.3. Darbandi and Davis'(1984) Translation
The translation of Mantiq ut Tair by Darbandi and Davis (1984) entitled the Conference of Birds has been made from the original edition of Attars’ Manteq ut-Tair and the notes to their edition have been consulted in the preparation of the biographical index which follows the poem. It is based on the oldest extant manuscripts, and is skillfully rendered into heroic couplets pleasingly faithful to the letter and spirit of Attar’s allegory. So, this translation has kept the whole poem with the exception of the invocation and the epilogue. The invocation, a traditional prelude to long narrative poems in Persian, consists of praise of God, of the prophet and of the founders of Islam. The translators were not successful in capturing much of the tone and feeling of the original. Also a fair number of stories have been omitted, including the important last story; quite a lot of the commentary has been also omitted, and this has rendered the poems structure very elusive (Darbandi & Davis, 1984, pp. 9-11).
In this study, the following procedure was used to collect and analyze the data:
1. The KP allusions in Mantiq ut-Tair and their equivalents in the two English translations were identified by the researcher of the present study.
2. The most frequent strategies suggested by Leppihalme (1997) for translating KP allusions were applied to see which strategies have been opted for by the translators.
3. The distribution of the two translator’s preferred strategies for translating KP allusions was presented in a table, three figures and an appendix for subsequent analysis and discussion.
In this study an attempt is made to classify translator’s strategies based on Leppihalme the classification of translation strategies of allusions to find the answer of the research questions and to come to descriptive conclusion.
DATA ANALYSIS AND Results
In this chapter, Attar’s Mantiq ut-Tair and the two English translations of it by Nott (1954), Darbandi and Davis (1984) are analyzed and discussed in detail to clarify the concepts of intertextuality (KP allusion) and strategies used in these translations based on Leppihalmes’ strategies KPs This chapter is set to present the 43 examples of KP allusions for the purpose of checking the translators’ strategies utilized in poetry translating process.
4.2. Analysis of the Data
4.2.1. Key-phrase Allusions in Attar (1177) Mantiq ut- Tair
Attar’s”great philosophical religious poem Mantiq ut-Tair” is the work which is based on three most important categories such as beauty, love and pain. By using allusions he tries to convey the most important religious concepts by his poems to audience. In fact, Attar’s intertext range broadly across the Koran, history and myths, and figures of these sources receive multiple references in his Mantiq ut-Tair. Some of the KP allusions are:
جلوه گربگذشت برچین نیمشب
It was in China, late one moonless night
لیک فردا دربلاعمردراز
Tomorrow they will meet misfortune
This chapter intends to investigate the used key-phrases in Attar’s book such as mythological, religious and historical key-phrase allusions. Furthermore, due to the comprehensive use of key-phrases allusions in Mantiqu’t-Tair, all examples of different key-phrases belonging to each allusion are discussed based on the strategies suggested by Leppihaleme (1997) by different translators such as Nott (1954), Darbandi and Davis (1984).
In this phase, first of all, some actual examples of KP allusions