مقاله درمورد دانلود KP، allusion، not، TL

in Mantiq ut-Tair by Attar followed by their translations are given. Then the utilized strategies and some explanations regarding KP allusions and translator’s treatment are provided. Similarities and differences between the translations and the original are discussed and the effects produced by different translations are studied. In this part, the first translation is of Nott and the second to Darbandi and Davis.ترجمه شوره ها از کیست؟

Example 1:
گاه گل بر روی آتش دسته کرد گاه پل بر روی دریا بسته کرد(14)
1. Sometimes he makes clusters of rose’s spring from the face; sometimes he throws bridges across the face of the waters.
2. ……………………………………………………….
This key- phrase allusion refers to sixty ninth verse of Al-Anbiya Surah (We said: O fire, be coolness and peace for Abraham!).

Comparison and Comment:
The translator has utilized ‘standard translation strategy’ for translating the KP allusion. The translator has tried to transfer the meaning of the SL into the TL by way of semantic structure. The TL reader can grasp the semantic meaning of the KP in this translation by receiving some target equivalents for the original KP. The second translator did not render the couplet or omit it in his rendering.

Example 2:
چرخ را دور شبانروزی دهد شب برد،روز آورد،روزی دهد(27)
1. God has made the firmament to revolve-night follows day and day the night.

2. ……………………………………………..
The all couplet is a KP allusion. It refers to twenty seventh verse of Al-Imran Surah (Thou causest the night to pass into the day, and Thou causest the day to pass into the night. And Thou bringest forth the living from the dead, and Thou Thou bringest forth the dead from the living. And Thou givest sustenance to whom Thou choosest, without stint).
Comparison and Comment:
‘Replacement by performed TL item’ is the translation strategy which has been applied by the translator in this translation; TL readers are able to experience a foreign word despite the language barriers. According to the KP in the SL, the translator has replaced a chain of choice with color of English in TL. In fact the reader of TL cannot understand the exact meaning which would be possible. The second translator did not render this couplet or omit it in rendering.

Example 3:
چون دمی در گل دمد آدم کند وزکف و دودی همه عالم کند(28)
1. When he breathes on clay man is created; and from a little vapour he forms the world.

2. …………………………………………………..
However, the second translator did not translate the all couplet. This allusion refers to the creation of all universe, skies and Land.
Comparison and Comment:
The translator utilized ‘standard translation’ for translating the KP. That is, perform TL wording because it requires no new verbalization from the translator and, being transcultural helps the translator to convey the full rage of meaning, including connotations. In fact, this translation can therefore thought a sign of translatorial competence. The translator has tried to express figurative meaning. The TL reader can understand the spirit and the message of the KP allusion as the source language readers understand it.

Example 4:
گه سگی را ره دهد درپیشگاه گه کند از گربه ای مکشوف راه(29)
1. Sometimes he causes the dog to go before the traveler; Some times he uses to show the Way.
2. ……………………………………………..
The second translator did not render the couplet which is a KP allusion. It refers to eightieth verse of Al- Kahf Surah (And thou wouldst have deemed them waking though though they were asleep, and We caused them to turn over to the right and the left, and their dog stretching out his paws on the threshold. If thou hadst observed them closely thou hadst assuredly turned away from them in fight, and hadst been filled with awe of them.

Comparison and Comment:
The translator has applied ‘minimum change strategy’. This translation is a literal translation. The KP allusion is translated literally without regard to connotative or contextual meaning. According to Leppihame (1997, p. 96) a minimum change translation can work well if (1) the allusion is transcultural, so that the literal translation is also the standard translation, with the same connotation(2) a literal rendering is transparent enough a metaphorical level.

Example 5:
گه عصایی را سلیمانی دهد گاه موری راسخندانی دهد(32)
1. Sometimes he gives the power of Solomon to a staff; sometimes he accords eloquence to the ant.
2. …………………………………………………..
This KP allusion refers to the Solomon’s story that the second translator did not render the couplet.
Comparison and Comment:
The translator has utilized the ‘standard translation’ for translating the KP allusion. The translator has tried to express figurative meaning. The TL reader can understand the spirit and the message of the KP allusion as the SL readers understand it. The main focus of translator is on the semantic meaning of the KP allusion by paying attention to the connotative and contextual meaning.

Example 6:
چون فلک را کُره ای سرکش کند از هلالش نعل در آتش کند(34)
1. He has placed in the firmament the orb of the proud, and binds it with iron when glowing red it wans.

2. ……………………………………………………..
This allusion refers to the Storm of Noah in Attar Mantiq ut Tair. Second translator did not translate the poem.
Comparison and Comment:
‘Minimum change’ is a translation strategy which has been applied by the translator to translate the KP allusion. In fact, this translation is literal. The translator has rendered the KP allusion word-by-word. He has concentrated on the structural form of the TL not to transfer the KP meaning from the SL into the TL. It is difficult for the TL readers to understand the KP allusion meaning as the SL readers communicate with and enjoy.

Example 7:
گفت ای «ای آدم تو بحر جود باش ساجدند آن جمله تو مسجود باش»(134)
1. And he said to him, ‘O Adam, all creatures adore me; be adored in your turn’.

این مطلب مشابه را هم بخوانید :   منبع پایان نامه ارشد درموردتغییرات ساختاری، تغییرات عملکرد، فیزیولوژی

2………………………………………………………..
The second translator did not translate the poem. In fact, this allusion refers to the Man’s creation and his more superiority than other creature in universe.
Comparison and Comment:
The translation is idiomatic translation because the translator has used the natural forms of the TL, both in the grammatical construction and in the choice of lexical items. The strategy utilized in translation is ‘standard translation’. He has tried to convey the range of meaning including connotative and contextual meaning.

Example 8:
وان یکی کز سجده او سر بتافت مسخ و ملعون گشت آن سرّ در نیافت(135)
1 The only one who turened from this adoration was transformed from an angel into a demon. He was cursed and had no knowledge of the secret.

2 ………………………………………………………..
The second translator did the translation as pervious examples because he did not it and this allusion refers to the thirty forth verse of Al- Baqarah Surah (A
nd when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He demurred through pride, and so became a dis beliver.)
Comparison and Comment:
‘Extra-allusive guidance’ strategy added in the text, where the translator follows his/her assessment of the needs of the TT readers by adding information which the author, with his/her SL viewpoint, did not think necessary, including the use of typographical means to signal that the material is performed. The translator follows his assessment of the needs of the TL readers by adding some information. The use of typographical means to signal that the material is performed to translate the KP allusion according to SL viewpoint.

Example 9:
همچو موسی دیده ای آتش ز دور لاجَرَم موسیجه ای بر کوه طور(624)
1. Like Moses you have seen the fire from afar; you are really a little Moses on Mount Sinai.
2. Like Moses you have seen the flames burn high- On Sinais slopes and there you long to fly,
This KP allusion refers to seventh verse of Al-Naml Surah: (Remember) when Moses said unto his household: Lo! I spy afar off a fire; I will bring you tidings thence, or bring to you a borrowed flame that ye may warm yourselves. It refers to what a great prophet called Mossa who saw a fire which is a sign of the one God in a well-known mountain called Tour. But the translator has translated the text word by word not to transfer information to English audience. As a result, the reader misses the relevant background the allusion.
Comparison and Comment:
In first translation, the translator has utilized ‘replacement by a performed TL item strategy’. Although translated poetry into English, the reference is far removed from the experiences of the English audience, and does not evoke any intertextual meaning using the equivalent for the KP allusion in Persian text. In fact, the translator has not provided the exact information for the KP allusion because the exact meaning of the fire in the above text.
While in second translation depending on the preferred strategy which is ‘the reduction of allusion to sense by rephrasal’, the translator entitle to get away from the KP because he has devoted the message, the sense and the sprit of the KP allusion in his translation. In fact, he has not any ability to transfer the relative values as well as the exact meaning. What the translator has regarded in his translation is only paying much attention to linguistic structure of the text.
Example 10:
طُوق آتش ازبرای دوزخی است حُله ازبهربهشتی وسَخی است (628)
1. this collar is fitting for a dweller in the underworld but your robe is worthy of Heaven.
Comparison and comment:
The translator has utilized a strategy called ‘reduction of allusion’ to sense by rephrasal, in other words, making its meaning overt and dispensing with the allusive KP itself in this translation. He has expanded knowledge and understanding in English translation. The contextual meaning in this translation is ambiguous because he has not understood the semantic meaning of the key-allusion in Islamic culture. He has only translated fire allusion by using an equivalent which cannot transform the body of religious meaning to English reader. The translator also has omitted the word of (طوق). The contextual meaning of the KP allusion in this translation has been ignored to some extent that English reader is not able to be aware of sensitive to collocation of the KP.
2. A necklace of bright fire about the throat;
Though heavens bliss is promised by your coat,  This circle stands for hell; if you can flee
Comparison and comment:
In second translation, the translator has applied the ‘replacement by a performed TL item strategy’. The allusion to »necklace of bright fire «has been reduced to sense by the first and second translator. The Persian connotations of the KP allusion have been removed and it has been translated according to linguistic meaning in English not to semantic meaning in Persian. In fact, the communication between the translated text and English reader has been lost so that both translators have tried to make linguistic meaning of KP allusion. On the other hand, intertextuality which is an aspect of allusion in order to convey semantic or idiomatic meaning of translation has been ignored by both translators.
The KP allusion here refers to seventy one verse of Al-Mu’min Surah (When carcans are about their necks and chains. They are dragged).
Example 11:
خوش بنال از درد دل داوود وار تا کنندت هر نَفَس صد جان نثار(648)
1. Utter your plaintive notes caused by the wounds and pains of love. Lament sweetly from the heart, like

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