the other hand, Ben-Porat (1976, p. 50) and Perri (1978, p. 41) argued that allusive words and the evoked words may be identical emphasizing on names’ potentiality of being allusive.
2.7.1. Functions of Allusion
The use of allusion has had a long rhetorical history for reasons mentioned by Wheeler (1979): “Allusions help to elucidate the meaning of each text and to indicate the literary modes and conventions in which its author works (p. 182).” According to Sikorska (2000, p. 260), allusions elucidate the meaning by being complementary to the earlier text and thus expanding the scope of its meaning. But, Leppihalme (1997,p. 37) noted that creating humor, delineating characters and carrying themes are more functions of allusion. The first of these, humor (including parody and irony) is employed to detract from the importance of a situation or character. Conrad’s allusion to the ‘whitened sepulcher’ in his Heart of Darkness is an example of irony which depicts religious hypocrisy. Reinforcing themes is another function of allusion proposed by Leppihalme (1997).
She writes on the macro-level the use of creative allusions often brings in a suggestion of universality, a heightening of emotion, a desire to imply that there is something about a situation or character in the alluding context that is more important than the reader would other wise assume, and which may be of thematic importance for the interpretation of the text as a whole (Leppihalme, 1997, p. 37).
Allusions can also function as an economical aid to characterization characters who make use of allusions, as Leppihalme (1997, p. 44) puts it, seem to be well-educated, literate and intelligent and they use allusions in order to serve their interests, as when a central character, who is a professor with a well-established reputation in the expanding field of children’s literature (Lurie as quoted in Leppihalme, 1997) frequently alludes to Lewis Carroll and other children’s classics (p. 44).
2.7.2. Forms of Allusion
Leppihalme (1997, p. 57) identified different forms of allusion, some of which are the linguistic means for expression of comparisons.
She notes when allusions compare aspects or qualities of counterparts in history, literature, popular or contemporary culture, as they frequently do such comparison is expressed by a variety of linguistic means (Leppihalme, 1997, p. 57).
Then she goes on to name these linguistic means: there is at least the similie, with its variations: ‘that man is like Onasis’ , he reminds me of Onasis’, the oppositive expression, ‘my neighbor, that Onasis’, the premodifying allusion, ‘an Onasis type’ and the vocative allusion, ‘It’s easy for you to say, Onasis!’(p. 5).”
Lefevere (1992) pointed out that allusion point to the real untranslatable, which does not reside in syntactic transfers or semantic constructions, but rather in the peculiar way in which cultures all develop their own ‘shorthand’, which is what allusions really are. A word or phrase can evoke a situation that is symbolic for an emotion or state of affairs. The translator can render the word or phrase and the corresponding state of affairs without much trouble. The link between the two, which is so intricately bound up with the foreign culture itself, is much harder to translate (pp. 56-57).
2.7.3. Types of Allusion
Allusions can be sorted into four thematic groups; religious allusion, literary allusion, mythological allusion, historical allusion, PN allusion and KP allusion (Leppihalme, 1997, p. 66). They are more explained as follow:
220.127.116.11. Religious Allusion
Religious scriptures have always been a source of inspiration for poets and authors of literary texts. In fact, the allude to religious scriptures(the report of God’s action in history, the founding texts of religion or religions, the guides to ethics, the evidences about people and societies in the remote past and so on) to attribute value to their works. Traces of religion in literature can be followed in different ways. Sometimes, authors make an allusive reference to a verse from the religious scriptures (Lepihalme, 1997, P. 69). For example, take this couplet from Attar:
همچوموسی دیده ای آتش ز دور لاجرم موسیجه ای برکوه طور(624)
Nott’s translation: Like Moses you have seen the fire from afar; you are really a little Moses on Mount Sinai
Darbandi and Davis translation: Like Moses you have seen the flames burn high- On Sinais slopes and there you long to fly,
This KP allusion refers to seventh verse of Al-Naml Surah: (Remember) when Moses said unto his household: Lo! I spy afar off a fire; I will bring you tidings thence, or bring to you a borrowed flame that ye may warm yourselves.
This reference can be explicit or implicit. So, authors may also incorporate scriptural references in their works by using the PNs associated with a specific religion (the name of prophets, saints, battles, holy places, etc).Another example is:
هر که مذکور خدای آمد به خیر کی رسد درگَََََََََََرد سیرش هیچ طیر(703)
Nott: The bird who is sought after by prophet Solomon, merits a crown for his head.
Darbandi and Davis: Whatever secrets he divined I knew;
This KP allusion refers to twentieth verse Al-Naml Surah: And the sough among the birds and said: How is it that I see not the hoopoe, or is he among the absent?
18.104.22.168. Literary Allusion
According to McSweeny (1999, P. 1) a literary allusion is “an explicit or implicit reference to another literary text that is sufficiently overt to be recognized and understood by a competent reader”. As Bloom quoted in Wheeler (1979, P. 2) in fact, authors allude to other works of literature to maintain their literary identities in the shadow of their precursors and thus to activate the two texts simultaneously. An example is mentioned from Attar:
آن پراکنون درنگارستان چین است اطلبو العلم و لوبالصین ازینست(740)
Nott: This feather is still in the picture-gallery of that country; hence the saying, “Seeking knowledge, even in China!
Darbani and Davis: (In China still this feather is on view, Whence comes the saying you have heard, no doubt, Seek knowledge, unto China seek it out.)
The KP allusion refers to this couplet of Hafez in eight century: the China face was beloved to your beauty and the story has reminded everything in life.
22.214.171.124. Mythological Allusion
As Karmer(1961, P. 7) argued mythologics are fabulous stories, reaching back into the dim past, which consist largely of “tales of gods and heroes, their births, loves and hates, spites and intrigues, victories and defeats, acts of creation and destruction”. The importance of mythology of the ancient world has through the ages provided inspiration and theme, character and plot, to every author and poet who has come in touch with its myriad enchantments (Karmer, 1961, P 7). He proposed that knowing mythologies compose a great part of our literature; it would not be an exaggeration to claim that without knowledge of mythology much of elegant literature of our language can not be understood and appreciated. An example is:
باز آی آخرکه دربگشاده ایم توغرامت کرده مااستاده ایم(1850)
Nott: Return then, to the way. I open my door to you and wait. When you have truly changed your attitude your sins will be forgiven.
Darbandi and Davis: Asking no payment for this newer crime; Poor fool — would you repent once more? My gate- Stands open always; patiently I wait.
The key- phrase allusion refers to old custom that every sinner should punish in past times of Sufism.منبع آن ذکر شودکتاب منطق الطیر است شماره بیت
126.96.36.199. Historical Allusion
Wheeler (1979) suggested the classification of allusion. He also identified two kinds of allusion; cultural and textual. Then, he went on to explain that “cultural allusions help to identify or define national, regional or class cultures” (P. 18). According to Wheeler (1979) the main function of textual allusions is “establishing link between specific adopted and adoptive texts (P. 20).” LanHam (as cited in Wheeler, 1979, P. 20) proposed textual allusions have four different types: “gnomic allusion that is a statement transcribed or adopted in order to under line some message or theme”. He (1979) lists four terms which could be applied to various kinds of gnomic allusion: “aenos (the quoting of wise sayings from fables), opomnemonysis (the quoting of an approved authority from memory), chira (a short exposition of a deed or saying of person whose name is mentioned) and paroemia (the quoting of proverbs (p. 20)”.
Second type of textual allusion is what Wheeler (1979, p. 21) calls short hand notations, which is often used to suggest typicality of character. The third type of textual allusion is borrowed embellishment, such as “purple passage” that stands out in a text or a reference that is used to add a sophisticated touch to a piece of writing and also to imply that the writer is learned (p. 20). And finally, Wheeler (1979, p. 22) considered allusion as a plot pointer or thematic pointer in the adoptive text, as the forth type of textual allusion. But the main classification of allusion in this study, is based on Leppihalme (1997, p. 18).
188.8.131.52. Proper-Name Allusion
PN allusions include both real-life and fictional figures. The famous leaders of the past, or the well-known writers and painters may be alluded to by name (Leppihalme, 1997, p. 66).
همچو موسی بازو و زوریم نیست وز ضعیفی قوت موریم نیست (1033)
Nott: I have no one to help me and I have not the strength of an ant
Darbandi and Davis: My feathers are too weak to carry me;The distance to the Simorghs sanctuary.
The KP allusion refers to thirty fifth verse of Al- Qasas Surah (He said: We will strengthen thine arm with thy brother, and We will give unto you both power so that they cannot reach you for Our portents. Ye twain, and those who follow you, will be winners.
Sometimes authors borrow PNs from Holy Scriptures, like biblical PN allusions, or allusive references to real- life figures mentioned in the Koran ((Leppihalme, 1997, p. 67).
184.108.40.206. Key Phrase Allusion
As Leppihalme (1997, p. 10) discussed KP allusions can be defined as encompassing all other allusions, those which do not contain a PN. Even though this definition casts a rather wide net, KP allusions are notably less numerous than PN allusions in the corpus. It is commonplace to say that the Koran is the source of countless allusions in the Persian literature. In fact, Koranic phrases lie embedded in many pages of Persian poetry from the time Islam entered Iran to the present day. But these phrases as Gordon (cited in Leppihalme, 1997) put it, remain always a thing apart from the movement of the writer’s own poetry: “He knows and his audience knows, that he is citing scripture. To both reader and writer the words are so familiar that quotation marks are unnecessary (p. 69).” It is therefore, no surprise that the Koran is the most common single source of KP allusions in the text under investigation that is Attar’s Mantiq ut-Tair. Other sources of KP allusions in Mantiq ut-Tair would be Hadiths (saying and quotations from the holy personalities in Islam).
لیک فردا در بلا عمر دراز جمله از شاهی خود مانند باز(931)
Nott: tomorrow they will meet misfortune and be forever deprived of their royalty
Darbandi and Davis: Though it is true that you confer on men-This majesty, kings must sink down again-And bear the punishments of Judgment Day
The KP allusion refers to the common verse in standing of kings at the Day and asking about their judgments in society at their time.
Adopting slogans from films, advertisement, and political campaign forms a further group of KP allusion. Yet various catch-phrases, clichés, proverbs, popular beliefs, assumptions and stories are other forms of KP allusions suggested by